By V. Grobock. Kentucky Wesleyan College.

Writing a narrative review does not constrain you to sections of the literature as would writing a systematic review cheap 50mg minocin. It is generally accepted that narrative reviews are an expert opinion that is an extension of current thinking and not a definitive evaluation of the literature. However, narrative reviews should always be based on the most recent knowledge and the most rigorous evidence. If you want to extend thinking and influence future research directions, you must base your opinions on the best evidence available. Narrative reviews have sometimes been criticised as “old fashioned” because they do not need to specify a search strategy, the criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies, or the way in which the quality of citations was assessed. Bias can be introduced if all relevant studies including those that are unpublished or in a foreign language are not identified. Bias can also be introduced by the overuse of the authors’ own studies or studies that support their viewpoints, the exclusion of studies with negative results, and the preferential selection of studies with which the authors are familiar. For this reason, some journals now require that the search strategy and inclusion criteria for publications are stated clearly in narrative reviews. Writing a narrative review can sometimes seem a daunting process but, as shown in Box 7. Once you have divided up the tasks involved into smaller, manageable pieces, and approached them in a sequential order, writing the review becomes simpler, more purposeful, and more 171 Scientific Writing organised. You should outline your topic at the beginning of the review and come to some clear conclusions or recommendations at the end. Reviews take less time to write and are more rewarding to write if you begin with an organised plan. You should explain how long you expect the review and the citation list to be and when you expect the review to be ready for submission.

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Computed tomography (CT) scanning can be useful in further delineating the extent of the defect and in following any potential healing of the defect in those cases of “acquired” stress fracture order 50mg minocin with mastercard. In general, conservative back programs are used for minimal degrees of slipping. Occasionally spinal orthotics are used and surgical stabilization or reduction of the degree of the slipping may be necessary for more severe Figure 5. The head to neckrelationship in acute slipped capital femoral degrees of spondylolisthesis or chronic epiphysis. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis Slipped capital femoral epiphysis, is a disorder of puberty characterized by slipping (movement) of the femoral head off the femoral neck. The femoral head ultimately migrates into a position of posterior–inferior displacement relative to the femoral neck. Lateral radiograph demonstrating bilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Proponents of the mechanical theory believe that excessive body weight, seen commonly in this condition, wears out the ability of the physis to withstand the mechanical forces applied to the growth plate. By overloading, the growth plate slowly or abruptly yields to excessive body mass, resulting in slipping of the head off the femoral neck. A contrasting hypothesis suggests that 89 Slipped capital femoral epiphysis the growth plate is weakened, due to a delicate imbalance between the hormones of puberty, coupled with an oblique shape to the growth plate, and excessive body mass, leading to gradual or abrupt slipping of the femoral head. This theory suggests that there is a basic hormonal imbalance at puberty that weakens the growth plate as a predilection to slipping. Slipping usually is seen in females between 10 and 15 years of age or in males generally between 12 and 16 years of age. Males are affected slightly more often than females, in a three to two proportion. The degrees of slipping inslipped capital femoral epiphysis has been estimated to occur in 25 percent of compared.

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The codes are quite detailed and are designed to ensure that candidates receive the support and educational facilities that they need cheap minocin 50mg without a prescription. In return, candidates should be prepared to establish working guidelines with their supervisor and to execute their project within the time-lines defined. Before you begin your degree, it is a good idea to familiarise yourself with the codes of practice at your institution. As a research student, it will be your responsibility to negotiate what your thesis will contain, to write the thesis, and to submit it for examination. In many institutions, the award of your degree will depend entirely on your thesis, and therefore it is important that it is self-contained, conveys your competency and demonstrates an original contribution to knowledge. If you are having problems writing your thesis, you may benefit from accessing online information (www9–11) or from joining or forming a writers group as discussed in Chapter 12. Attending and presenting your results at scientific meetings often provides inspiration and a valuable peer- review process. Also, regular attendance at journal clubs will help you to keep up to date with the literature and appraise new journal articles correctly. The steps to writing a literature review for a postgraduate thesis are shown in Box 7. Often, the literature review is one of the most burdensome parts to write. An effective way to summarise the literature is often to log the results from all relevant studies into a table/tables that you update regularly. Because the literature reviews from postgraduate theses are often published as narrative reviews, it may help to write it with this idea in mind. Remember that you can often be more expansive in your thesis than you would be if writing for a journal. The main purpose of your literature review is to provide a background for your work. You may like to put your research in a historical context, summarise all of the relevant work to date, including a critique of the strengths and weaknesses of previous studies, and raise any questions that you plan to address in your thesis. You must also be prepared to continue to update and rewrite your review as your study and candidature evolve.