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Pitfalls to avoid: ° Showing a bias by the type of information you select or the viewpoint you put across cheap ginette-35 2 mg free shipping. It will contain either a summary of the key points, a statement of the outcome of your discussion or a resolution to your argument. Making a reference back to your intro­ duction or the original question brings the essay full circle and achieves a satisfactory closure. Some questions that might help you in writing your conclusion are: ° What are the main points of your essay? ESSAYS 179 ° a change in attitude ° a change in knowledge ° a change in how to apply theory to practice ° a change in awareness ° a change in understanding. Like the introduction, the conclusion forms about 12 per cent of your es­ say – so in a 2000 word composition you would plan to have a conclusion of about 250 words. Writing drafts Views are mixed about whether writing several drafts is a good idea or not. Some advise writing coursework essays under exam conditions as practice for timed examinations. This may help in preparing you for your exams, however it is unlikely to help you in producing your best piece of work. I would recommend that, like any other written task, you take the opportu­ nity to draft your essay and revise it as necessary before you submit it. Use the checklist in the ‘Action Points’ at the end of this chapter to help edit your draft. Assessment criteria There is no set marking scheme that is used as a standard by all tutors for assessing essays. The way in which this type of written work is assessed 180 WRITING SKILLS IN PRACTICE varies between markers and between institutions. Some tutors work out a system where a set amount of marks is awarded to each main point covered in the essay.

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Grapefruit juice may also inhibit the metabolism of pimozide order 2mg ginette-35 mastercard, resulting in increased serum concentrations of this medication. Long-term treatment with pimozide is more effective in controlling the course of tics than its use solely to treat an exacerbation. Fluphenazine is an antagonist at both D1 and D2 dopaminer- gic receptors. Several studies have shown that this medication is an effective tic-suppressing agent that may have fewer side effects than other neuroleptics. Treatment is started with a dose of 1 mg at bedtime and increased in a similar fashion to pimozide, by 1 mg every 5–7 days, while the patient is monitored for a therapeutic response or side effects. Haloperidol, a butyrophenone and D2 blocking agent, was first documented to be an effective tic suppressor more than 40 years ago. Although it is probably the most widely used agent, in my experience the observed frequency of side effects is greater than with other agents in this category. Another less commonly used neuroleptic, trifluoperazine, may also have beneficial effects. Sulpiride and tiapride are substituted benzamides that are free of anticholinergic and noradrenergic effects. Both of these selective D2 antagonists have been shown to be beneficial in studies performed in Europe, but neither is available in the United States. These newer antipsychotic agents (risperidone, olanza- pine, ziprasidone, quetiapine) are characterized by a relatively greater affinity for 5HT2 receptors than for D2 receptors and the potential for fewer extrapyramidal side effects than typical neuroleptics. Substantial variations in receptor affinity profiles for subtypes of dopamine, serotonin, and adrenergic receptors exist among these agents, suggesting that there may be important differences in clinical effects. This benzisoxazol derivative acts at low doses on 5-HT2 recep- tors, while at higher doses, it is a potent D2 antagonist. It also has moderate to high affinity for a-1-adrenergic, D3, D4, and H1-histamine receptors. Several studies have suggested that risperidone may be effective for some patients and that it compares favorably with pimozide.

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By the end of the eighteenth century discount ginette-35 2 mg on line, Edward Jenner (1749–1823) improved the effectiveness of vaccination by injecting a subject with cowpox, then later injecting the same subject with smallpox. The experiment showed that immu- nity against a disease could be achieved by using a vaccine that did not contain the specific pathogen for the disease. In the nineteenth century, Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) proposed the germ theory of disease. He went on to develop a rabies vaccine that was made from the spinal cords of rabid rabbits. Through a series of injections starting from the weakest strain of the disease, Pasteur was able, after 13 injections, to prevent the death of a child who had been bitten by a rabid dog. There is now greater understanding of the principles of vaccines and the immunizations they bring because of our knowledge of the role played by antibodies and antigens within the immune system. Vaccination provides active immu- nity because our immune systems have had the time to recog- nize the invading germ and then to begin production of Binding of an antibody with an antigen, as detected using X-ray specific antibodies for the germ. Since O has no For research purposes there were repeated efforts to antigens, it is considered to be the universal donor. Type AB is obtain a laboratory specimen of one single antibody in suffi- the universal recipient because its antibodies can accept A, B, cient quantities to further study the mechanisms and applica- AB, or O. One way of getting around the problem of blood tions of antibody production. Success came in 1975 when types in transfusion came about as a result of World War II. Multiple myeloma is a rare form of cancer in which administered to a wounded soldier without the delay of check- white blood cells keep turning out a specific type of Ig anti- ing for the blood antigen type. Rhesus disease (also called erythroblastosis myeloma cell with any selected antibody-producing cell, fetalis) is a blood disease caused by the incompatibility of Rh large numbers of specific monoclonal antibodies can be pro- factors between a fetus and a mother’s red blood cells. Researchers have used other animals, such as mice, to an Rh negative mother gives birth to an Rh positive baby, any produce hybrid antibodies which increase the range of transfer of the baby’s blood to the mother will result in the pro- known antibodies.

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Afflicted individuals may also - 134 - Gegenhalten G demonstrate paroxysmal hyperpnea and upbeating nystagmus buy 2mg ginette-35 with visa, sug- gesting a brainstem (possibly pontine) localization of pathology. The condition should be distinguished from other cranial dystonias with blepharospasm (Meige syndrome). Neurology 1996; 46: 1767-1769 Cross References Blepharospasm; Dystonia; Nystagmus Gaze-Evoked Phenomena A variety of symptoms have been reported to be evoked, on occasion, by alteration of the direction of gaze: ● Amaurosis: lesion, usually intraorbital, compressing central retinal artery ● Laughter ● Nystagmus: usually indicative of cerebellar lesion; may occur as a side-effect of medications; also convergence-retraction nystagmus on upgaze in dorsal midbrain (Parinaud’s) syndrome ● Phosphenes: increased mechanosensitivity in demyelinated optic nerve ● Segmental constriction of the pupil (Czarnecki’s sign) following aberrant regeneration of the oculomotor (III) nerve to the iris sphincter ● Tinnitus: may develop after resection of cerebellopontine angle tumors, may be due to abnormal interaction between vestibular and cochlear nuclei ● Vertigo Cross References Leopold NA. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1977; 40: 815-817 Gaze Palsy Gaze palsy is a general term for any impairment or limitation in conjugate (yoked) eye movements. Preservation of the vestibulo-ocular reflexes may help dif- ferentiate supranuclear gaze palsies from nuclear/ infranuclear causes. Cross References Locked-in syndrome; Supranuclear gaze palsy; Vestibulo-ocular reflexes Gegenhalten Gegenhalten, or paratonia, or paratonic rigidity, is a resistance to pas- sive movement of a limb when changing its posture or position, which is evident in both flexor and extensor muscles (as in rigidity, but not spasticity), which seems to increase further with attempts to get the patient to relax, such that there is a resistance to any applied movement - 135 - G Gerstmann Syndrome (German: to counter, stand ones ground). However, this is not a form of impaired muscle relaxation akin to myotonia and paramyotonia. For instance, when lifting the legs by placing the hands under the knees, the legs may be held extended at the knees despite encouragement on the part of the examiner for the patient to flex the knees. Gegenhalten is a sign of bilateral frontal lobe dysfunction, espe- cially mesial cortex and superior convexity (premotor cortex, area 6). It is not uncommon in elderly individuals with diffuse frontal lobe cerebrovascular disease. Cross References Frontal release signs; Myotonia; Paramyotonia; Rigidity; Spasticity Gerstmann Syndrome The Gerstmann syndrome, or angular gyrus syndrome, consists of acalculia, agraphia (of central type), finger agnosia, and right-left dis- orientation; there may in addition be alexia and difficulty spelling words but these are not necessary parts of the syndrome. Gerstmann syndrome occurs with lesions of the angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus in the posterior parietotemporal region of the dominant (usually left) hemisphere, for example infarction in the territory of the middle cerebral artery. All the signs comprising Gerstmann syndrome do fractionate or dissociate, i.