By B. Mine-Boss. State University of New York at Albany.

Osteo- tonin in postmenopausal women with tebral deformities in women: compar- poros Int 10:450–455 established osteoporosis: the Prevent ison of radiological assessment and 37 celecoxib 100 mg amex. Greenspan SL, von Stetten E, Emond Recurrence of Osteoporotic Fractures quantitative morphometry using mor- SK, Jones L, Parker RA (2001) In- Study. Am J phometric radiography and morpho- stant vertebral assessment: a noninva- Med 109:267–276 metric X-ray absorptiometry. Cooper C (1997) The crippling conse- Miner Res 15:575–585 nique to avoid misclassification and quences of fractures and their impact 26. Ferrar L, Jiang G, Eastell R (2001) clinical mismanagement of osteoporo- on quality of life. J Clin Densitom 4:373–380 103:12S-17S; discussion 17S-19S metric X-ray absorptiometry for the 38. Crandall C (2002) Parathyroid hor- identification of vertebral deformities. TJ, et al (2002) Two-year results of mone for treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 12:661–671 once-weekly administration of alen- Arch Intern Med 162:2297–2309 27. Finkelstein JS, Klibanski A, Arnold dronate 70mg for the treatment of 18. Cummings SR, Black DM, Thompson AL, Toth TL, Hornstein MD, Neer postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Bone DE, et al (1998) Effect of alendronate RM (1998) Prevention of estrogen de- Miner Res 17:1988–1996 on risk of fracture in women with low ficiency-related bone loss with human 39. Guermazi A, Mohr A, Grigorian M, bone density but without vertebral parathyroid hormone-(1–34): a ran- Taouli B, Genant HK (2002) Identifi- fractures: results from the Fracture In- domized controlled trial. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall (2003) Lack of diagnosis and treat- 40. Harris ST, Watts NB, Genant HK, et EA, Dallal GE (1997) Effect of cal- ment of osteoporosis in men and al (1999) Effects of risedronate treat- cium and vitamin D supplementation women after hip fracture.

Post-operative chemother- eficial for patients with stage 2 colon cancer buy 100 mg celecoxib overnight delivery, apy and chemoradiotherapy, and pre-operative as discussed previously. Historically, most trials 130 TEXTBOOK OF CLINICAL TRIALS in adjuvant colon cancer have included patients treatment benefit in both subgroups of patients; with both stage 2 and 3 disease. The majority of the absence of a significant interaction implies patients in such trials have been stage 3 patients, that there is no evidence that the benefit of treat- and subset analyses within these trials have con- ment differs by patient subgroup. However, because the majority of patients in such trials have not been to demonstrate a different feature of subgroup stage 2, and because the prognosis for the stage analyses. The first trial, R-01, demonstrated a 2 patients is overall more favourable, with fewer significant benefit in terms of overall survival patient deaths and thus less statistical power, for the addition of chemotherapy following the individual studies have not shown consistent resection compared to no post-surgical treatment. As mentioned However, in subgroup analyses, this benefit above, two pooled analyse have been conducted, seemed to be limited to the male patients, with conflicting results. The NSABP is commended for obtaining and using the individ- to be commended for treating this finding as ual patient data from each of the included trials, hypothesis generating, and testing the hypothesis and for having very complete follow-up for the in their next study R-02. However, both analyses could be randomisation scheme differed for men and criticised for other methodologic issues. The first, women, with females being randomised to two by the NSABP investigators,59 pooled data from arms and males to four arms. The results of R- multiple trials with different treatment arms, none 02 did not demonstrate the need for different of which compared directly a no treatment arm treatment for the two genders, which put the to what would be considered a standard treat- issue to rest after being tested as appropriate in ment by current standards. This experience demonstrates 60 the value of confirming a finding that results from IMPACT investigators, did pool results from a subgroup analysis prior to accepting the result randomised trials of no post-surgical treatment to into clinical practice. However, these investigators did TUMOUR MARKER STUDIES not include data from two large trials testing 5-FU and levamisole versus control, which despite hav- A second area of considerable interest and debate ing the 5-FU modulated by a different agent did in the GI cancer community regards the use indeed test a very similar question, with 5-FU and of putative prognostic and predictive markers to levamisole shown in large randomised trials to guide the choice of therapy for an individual give results indistinguishable from 5-FU and leu- patient. Additionally, the IMPACT investigators been done on markers based on immunohisto- used a less powerful analysis than might be pos- chemistry, flow cytometry, chromosomal markers sible. The original trials included in the IMPACT such as allelic loss and microsatellite instability, analysis included patients with both stage 2 and pathologic features, and many others.

Treatment method: All three groups were administered as the basis of treatment Suo Quan Wan Jia Sang Piao Xiao (Reduce the Stream Pills plus Mantis Egg-case) cheap 100 mg celecoxib overnight delivery. This was composed of: Wu Yao (Radix Linderae) Yi Zhi Ren (Fructus Alpiniae Oxyphyllae) Shan Yao (Radix Dioscoreae) Sang Piao Xiao (Ootheca Mantidis) 62 Treating Pediatric Bed-wetting with Acupuncture & Chinese Medicine In addition, the supplement the spleen group was also adminis- tered Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang (Supplement the Spleen & Boost the Qi Decoction) minus Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis): Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) Gan Cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) Dang Shen (Radix Codonopsitis) Ju Pi (Exocarpium Citri) Sheng Ma (Rhizoma Cimicifugae) Chai Hu (Radix Bupleuri) Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae). The supplement the kidney group was also administered Wu Zi Yan Zong Wan (Five Seeds Increase Progeny Pills) minus Che Qian Zi (Semen Plantaginis): Gou Qi Zi (Fructus Lycii) Wu Wei Zi (Fructus Schisandrae) Tu Si Zi (Semen Cuscutae) Fu Pen Zi (Fructus Rubi) The supplement the spleen and kidneys group used a combina- tion of the above three formulas. One packet of the above group- appropriate medicinals was decocted in water and administered per day to all three groups. Study outcomes: GROUP NUMBER CURE IMPROVED NO TOTAL IMPROVEMENT AMELIORATION Spleen group 42 16 11 15 64. From The Treatment of Enuresis with Self-devised Ma Chang Long Mu Tang (Ephedra, Acorus, Dragon Bone & Oyster Shell Decoction) by Meng Xiang-min et al. Twenty-six cases presented a particular pattern of night- time enuresis and 14 cases did not. Treatment method: Ma Chang Long Mu Tang (Ephedra, Acorus, Dragon Bone & Oyster Shell Decoction) was composed of: Ma Huang (Herba Ephedrae), 5-10g Shi Chang Pu (Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii), 10-20g calcined Long Gu (Os Draconis), 15-25g Mu Li (Concha Ostreae), 15-25g If there was kidney qi vacuity as evidenced by enuresis many times per night, cold limbs, aversion to cold, a pale tongue, and deep, forceless pulse, 15-25 grams of Shan Zhu Yu (Fructus Corni) and 20-30 grams of Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) were added. If there was liver channel damp heat as evidenced by scanty, yel- lowish urine, a bitter taste in the mouth, a red tongue with yellow fur, and a rapid pulse, 15-25 grams of Long Dan Cao (Radix Gentianae) and 10-20 grams each of Sheng Di (uncooked Radix Rehmanniae) and Mu Tong (Caulis Akebiae) were added. One packet of these medicinals was decocted in water until 200 milli- liters of medicinal liquid remained. This resulting liquid was taken in 50 milliliter doses after lunch and dinner. If the disease was not cured in one course, treatment was continued for another course. Study outcomes: Thirty-four cases were cured, four improved, and two got no 64 Treating Pediatric Bed-wetting with Acupuncture & Chinese Medicine improvement. Fourteen of these cases were cured and one case improved after just one course of treatment. From The Empirical Treatment of 36 Cases of Enuresis Mainly by Using Self-devised He Che Gu Quan San (Placenta Secure the Stream Powder) by Yang Dong-shan & Cao Sheng- you, Gan Su Zhong Yi (Gansu Chinese Medicine), 2000, #1, p. The shortest course of disease was one year, and the longest was 20 years.

The shorter the bin width buy celecoxib 200 mg with visa, the better the latencies of the two peaks should be entirely the time resolution of the method. Notwithstanding, explained by the difference in afferent conduction because the central delay of the earliest disynaptic times. Estimate of the afferent conduction times (ii)Thelongerthedistancebetweenthetwopoints Afferent conduction times for the fastest homony- of stimulation of Ia fibres, the greater the precision mous and heteronymous Ia volleys can be estimated of the measurement of the Ia afferent conduction from: (i) the distance from stimulation sites to the velocity. The calculated velocity is that of the fastest entrance of the afferent volleys to the spinal cord (L2 Ia afferents, but the onset of the aggregate EPSP andC7vertebraeinthelowerandupperlimb,respec- underlying the monosynaptic Ia EPSP in individual tively) measured on the skin, and (ii) the conduction motoneuronesisgivenbythefastestIaafferents,and velocity of Ia afferents. The latter can be calculated this same issue applies to both homonymous and fromthelatencyofthemonosynapticIapeaksmeas- heteronymouspathways,whilethecriticalmeasure- ured in the PSTH of the same unit after stimulation ment in these experiments is the difference between of homonymous Ia afferents at two levels (Chapter 1, the two pathways. The difference in muscles in the median nerve), the difference in the afferent conduction times was 5. This is not the case when the two volleys are afferentconductiontimeswasidenticaltothediffer- in nerves located on different aspects of the limb ence in latencies of the homonymous and heterony- (e. However, a tion,likethatofthehomonymousone,ispresumably 3-cm error in this segment would alter the difference monosynaptic. Validation of other results Evidence drawn from bidirectional It is of particular interest that the evidence for connections heteronymous monosynaptic connections drawn Underlying principle from bidirectional connections supports conclu- sions from studies relying on calculations of afferent To eliminate uncertainties associated with the esti- conduction times. Indeed, the afferent conduction mates of peripheral afferent conduction times, stud- time was 0. Two motor units in different mus- peroneal peaks, whether heteronymous (soleus) or cles were investigated in the same experiment, using homonymous (peroneus brevis), were 1 ms longer the same stimulation sites for the two units, so that than the posterior tibial peaks (i. Hence, the results in these bidirectional studies sug- Because of this, the absolute value of the difference gest that any errors in the estimates of afferent con- in afferent conduction times between the homony- duction times were not significant and validate the mous and heteronymous volleys was the same for conclusions based upon those estimates.