By Q. Denpok. Empire State College.

Many healthcare guidelines are based on systematic reviews or randomised trials buy 100mg sildigra free shipping. Because you cannot include sufficient information about your methods in a short report, your study will not fulfil the criteria for inclusion in systematic reviews that are fundamental for translating research results into clinical practice. Case–control studies In case–control studies, it is important not to report exposures in the case and control groups as percentages or to report mean exposure levels in tables of baseline characteristics. Because these proportions will vary according to the sampling criteria rather than with the prevalence in the general population, they have no inherent epidemiological interpretation and they cannot be compared between studies (www2). It is much more valuable if the results are presented as the level of risk that is associated with an exposure, for example as odds ratios. The frequencies of 71 Scientific Writing exposed and unexposed cases and controls can then be presented in tables along with the odds ratios but only for the purpose of making the derivation of the statistics transparent to the reader and not for making comparisons with other studies. Religion solves every problem and thereby abolishes problems from the universe… Science is the very opposite. George Bernard Shaw (in an after-dinner toast to Albert Einstein, 1930) Always try to present your results in an objective and dispassionate way. Never be tempted to overinterpret your findings, no matter how passionately you believe in your hypothesis and no matter how desperately you want it to be proved. It is much better to limit yourself to describing exactly what you found. For example do not say, There was an extremely high incidence of disease in the study population. It is better to present straight facts such as, The incidence of disease was higher than has been measured previously. If you need to shout about your results, it is best to do so in private. You must never state that there was a difference between your study groups when the P value is greater than 0·05. An important concept is that differences between groups that are almost significant, such as those with a P value between 0·051 and 0·1, are not significant. Similarly, you must refrain from making statements such as, The active group had a larger change from baseline than the control group, although the difference did not reach statistical significance.

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If the authors cannot satisfy these 35 Scientific Writing points cheap sildigra 25 mg amex, the paper will not be published. These moves are intended to prevent the publication of research results that reflect their financial backing. Role of statisticians A statistician is a person who likes to prove you wrong, 5% of the time. Taken from an internet bulletin board Statisticians often have a special place in the authorship of a paper that reflects their contribution to the design and/or reporting of the study. As such, they are a good example of how a person with specific expertise can support a study in either a minor or a major way. A statistician’s role may vary from the development of the study design and study protocol to helping prepare the grant application, implementing the study, planning and performing the data analyses, and/or interpreting the results. In general, authorship is not warranted when the statistician has contributed to only one or two aspects of the paper in an entirely consultative way. However, authorship is often warranted when the statistician has been more actively involved and has made a fundamental, intellectual contribution that fulfils at least some of the Vancouver guidelines. Author order There is intense international competition in science these days which is a kind of substitute for war. Gordon Lil and Arthur Maxwell (Science, 1959) An additional problem in deciding authorship can be the order in which coauthors are listed. The last author is usually the senior member of the team and is often the person who conceived the initial idea for the study and/or obtained funding. It is common policy that the authors in between the first and last are ranked in order of the magnitude of their input into the paper. On some papers, the last author may be the person who contributed the least in intellectual terms rather than the most. The Cochrane Collaboration specifically asks that the order reflects the size of the contribution made by each author so that the last author is the person who makes the smallest contribution.

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